Oct 16



Alonzo Hersford Cushing (January 19, 1841–July 3, 1863) commanded Battery A, 4th United States Artillery at the Battle of Gettysburg. He was born in what is now the city of Delafield, Wisconsin, but was raised in Fredonia, New York. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in the Class of 1861. This view was taken circa the 1860s.

Licensed Battlefield Guide George Newton is a native of Baltimore, an Air Force Vietnam War Veteran, a retired insurance executive, and the author of Silent Sentinels: A Reference Guide to the Artillery at Gettysburg.

In part one of our artillery series we featured a Napoleon manufactured by Quimby and Robinson in Memphis, Tennessee, and a 10-pounder Parrott Rifle, manufactured by the West Point Foundry in Cold Spring, New York.

In part two we concentrated on 24-pounder howitzers at Moody’s Battery, A 12-pounder howitzer, manufactured in 1837, and the oldest gun on the field, and some 20-pounder Parrotts.

In part three George showed the only 6-pounder displayed on the battlefield, and showed us how fifteen 6-pounders at Gettysburg National Military Park were converted into “false Napoleons.”

In our fourth post, George Newton showed us the artillery pieces used on headquarters markers, and the two monuments on East Cemetery Hill to Cooper’s Battery B, 1st Pennsylvania.

In our fifth post on artillery, George presents the highest numbered 3-inch Ordnance Rifle at Gettysburg National Military Park, and the positions of the artillery pieces today representing Cooper’s Battery and Rickett’s Battery.

In our sixth post, Gettysburg Licensed Battlefield Guide George Newton explained the advantages of 3-inch ordnance rifles, and the artillery bombardment involving East Cemetery Hill on July 2, 1863.

In our seventh post, Licensed Battlefield Guide George Newton shows us the British-made Whitworths, and explains how they were loaded, and their advantages and disadvantages.

In our eighth artillery post, George Newton presented a 12-pounder Napoleon at Dilger’s Ohio Battery on West Howard Avenue.

In the ninth artillery post, Gettysburg Licensed Battlefield Guide George Newton showed us limbers, caissons, and their proper positions when a battery was deployed on the battlefield.

In our tenth post, Gettysburg Licensed Battlefield Guide George Newton showed us the position of Battery B, 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery (Brown’s Battery) on July 2, 1863 and July 3, 1863.

In today’s post, Licensed Battlefield Guide George Newton described the actions of Cushing’s Battery A, Fourth U.S. Artillery on July 3, 1863.

For George’s previous posts on Gettysburg Artillery please click here.



This map shows the locations of the videos that we shot on Oak Hill. Videos #1-#27 were presented in our previous artillery posts. Video #28 was taken by a limber of Cushing’s Battery. Video #29 was taken by the limber to Cushing’s Battery and by the stone wall that connected the inner and outer angles in the “High Water Mark” area. Video #30 was taken by a limber of Cushing’s Battery and by a caisson on the other (east) side of Hancock Avenue. Videos #31 and #32 were taken by the position of Brown’s Battery on July 3, 1863. Video #33 was taken by the monument to Brown’s Battery. Videos #34- #36 were filmed north of the Copse of Trees. This map was created facing north at approximately 10:00 AM on Tuesday, August 25, 2009.



Gettysburg Licensed Battlefield Guide George Newton is standing in the High Water Mark area on Cemetery Ridge. Behind (north of) him is the area occupied by Cushing’s Battery A, 4th United States Artillery on July 3, 1863. This view was taken facing north at approximately 3:45 PM on Sunday, August 23, 2009.

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In Video #34 (Videos #1-#33 were shown in our previous Artillery posts) Gettysburg Licensed Battlefield Guide George Newton is on Cemetery Ridge at the position of Battery A, 4th United States Artillery (Cushing’s Battery). He shows us the position actually occupied by Cushing on July 3rd and some incidents before the artillery barrage. This view was taken facing north to northeast at approximately 3:45 PM on Sunday, August 23, 2009.



In this view of Cushing’s Battery position, one can see the following monuments/markers from left to right: Armistead Marker, 71st Pennsylvania Monument by the outer “Angle” of the stone wall, Cushing’s Battery Marker, and Cushing’s marker. This view was taken facing northwest at approximately 3:45 PM on Sunday, August 23, 2009.



The Cushing marker is closest to the camera. This view was taken facing northwest at approximately 3:45 PM on Sunday, August 23, 2009.

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In Video #35 Licensed Battlefield Guide George Newton is on Cemetery Ridge at the position of Battery A, 4th United States Artillery (Cushing’s Battery). He describes some incidents during the artillery barrage including Cushing’s wounds and eventual death. This view was taken facing north to northeast to northwest at approximately 3:45 PM on Sunday, August 23, 2009.



On July 3, 1863, Alonzo Cushing was wounded three times. First, he was wounded by a shell fragment that went straight through his shoulder. Second, he was wounded by a shell fragement which tore into his abdomen and groin. This wound exposed Cushing’s intestines which he held in place with his hand as he continued to command his battery. Cushing not only refused to leave the battlefield, he requested permission to have his guns moved closer to the stone wall. The severity of his wounds left him unable to yell his orders above the sounds of battle. Thus, he was held aloft by 1st Sergeant Frederick Fuger, who loudly repeated Cushing’s commands. Cushing was killed when a bullet entered his mouth and exited through the back of his skull. He died on the field at the height of Longstreet’s Assault/Pettigrew/Trimble/Pickett’s Charge. The marker was erected by the survivors of the 71st Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment. This view was taken facing northwest at approximately 11:00 AM on Tuesday, August 25, 2009.



The other marker to an individual in this area is the marker to Confederate Brigadier-General Lewis Armistead. It is in front of the left wheel of the artillery piece. The monument to the 72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment is in the left background near the stone wall. This view was taken facing west at approximately 11:00 AM on Tuesday, August 25, 2009.



Did Armistead actually get this far into the Union position before he was mortally wounded on July 3, 1863? This view was taken facing north at approximately 11:00 AM on Tuesday, August 25, 2009.

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In Video #36 George Newton is on Cemetery Ridge at the position of Battery A, 4th United States Artillery (Cushing’s Battery). He gives his opinion on how far Brigadier-General Lewis Armistead advanced into the High Water Mark area. This view was taken facing northwest to north at approximately 3:45 PM on Sunday, August 23, 2009.



This marker was proposed first on May 5, 1887 when permission was asked of the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association (GBMA) to mark the spot where General Armistead was wounded. It was at first refused, because the request violated the GBMA rule that all monuments must be within the battle lines. But when it was pointed out to the Directors of the GBMA that numerous markers to Union commanders had already been placed, many without regard to the position of related unit movements, the GBMA reconsidered their previous decision and approved the Armistead Marker on July 12, 1887. This view was taken facing west at approximately 11:00 AM on Tuesday, August 25, 2009.



The marker was erected and dedicated by friends of the Armistead family in December 1887, and it is the first monument dedicated to a Confederate officer placed at Gettysburg. The monument to the 71st Pennsylvania is in the background by “The Angle.” This view was taken facing northwest at approximately 11:00 AM on Tuesday, August 25, 2009.



George’s Book, Silent Sentinels: A Reference Guide to the Artillery at Gettysburg, was published in 2005 by Savas Beatie LLC, 521 Fifth Avenue, Suite 3400, New York, New York, 10175. The telephone number is (610)-853-9131. The book is 259 pages with 235 pages of text, photographs, and illustrations. It is currently retailing on Amazon.com for $29.95. If it is not retailing from Amazon (or for that price), you may order it directly from the publisher, Savas Beatie. The cover of this book was scanned at approximately 8:30 PM on Friday, November 21, 2008.

To see other posts by Gettysburg Licensed Battlefield Guides, click here.


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